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Open access


Open access (OA) -  scientific research results are made freely accessible in digital form

APC (Article Processing Charge) - publication fee for open access journals paid by the author

Creative Commons (CC) -license - Extends the terms and conditions of copyright of a work to fit specific needs.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI) - a permanent identifier of electronic documents

Embargo - A publisher's restrictions on how soon an article can be published in an open archive.

Gold open access -  a scientific article is published in an OA-journal with a publication fee

Gratis open access - publishing without charge

Green open access - parallel publishing of an article in a freely accessible university institutional repository

Hybrid open access - the author has the option to pay for making individual articles in subscription-based journals freely accessible

Libre open access - in addition to free access user rights, additional rights are given using Creative Commons licenses

Post-print - refereed version of an article, including changes

Pre-print - version of an article that has not yet been refereed

Parallel publishing -  a refereed and published article in a scientific journal is made freely available e.g. in a university's institutional repository

Tools for evaluating publications

Forms of open access

What is Open Access (OA)?

Open access means that research results are made freely accessible in digital form, which promotes the dissemination of research results both within the scientific community and to the public at large. The reader can read free of charge, use, copy, print, and link the OA publications.  

OA publications can be divided into Free OA and Libre OA, which determines how the publication may be used. Free OA means that a publication may be viewed and printed at no cost, while Libre OA allows wider use through the use of Creative Commons licenses.

Gold Open Access 

Gold open access means that a scientific article is published in a journal that does not receive subscription fees from readers. Instead, it's the writer who pays a publishing fee (article processing charge, APC) to cover the journal's administrative costs.

Green Open Access 

​Green open access means that a version of the article is parallel published in the university's freely accessible institutional repository. Parallel publishing is not the same as publishing in an open access journal, but parallel publishing has the advantage that the item's visibility and its ability to influence increases. By parallel publishing, it is usually AAM (author's manuscript due accepted), final draft or post-print version of the item that is stored in the institutional repository. Before the article is parallel published, it is important to know what rights to open access publishing the publisher admits, for example, embargo-times (usually 6-12 months). 

Gold or Green routes for open accessPicture: Foster Open Science (PASTEUR4OA)

Hybrid Open Access 

Hybrid open access means that the author has the option to pay for making individual articles in subscription-based journals freely accessible. Many highly valued scholarly journals collect separate OA / APC fees when researcher wants to publish her/his article open access (hybrid open access, hybrid publishing). University of Vaasa, other universities and research funders do not recommend hybrid publication. On behalf of the Finnish scholarly community the FinELib consortium aims to negotiate to the point where subscription fees of scholarly journals would cover the APCs. If you buy your article open in subscription based journal, capitalize on the negotiated benefits on open access costs: 

Video clips on open access

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