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University of Vaasa writing guidelines: Special cases

The guidelines contain instructions about the layout and contents of theses and other written assignments as well as instructions on how to refer to source literature and other material used in the work.

Mathematical formulas

Number mathematical formulas sequentially, treat them as part of the text, and follow normal spelling rules, including punctuation.

Place each formula on its own line, and separate from the surrounding text with a single blank line before and after the formula. Place the formula's sequential number in parentheses in the right side. Indent the beginning of a formula so that the formula part of all formulas begins at the same point.

Use standardised notation in mathematical presentation, if such notation exists.

Note that the comma before the clause beginning with the word "where" is placed at the end of the formula. Explain the formula quantities only if they have not been previously explained in the text or other formulas. If the sentence after the formula does not continue, place a full stop at the end of the formula. In these cases, place any source references at the end of the text before the formula.

Programs or code snippets

Indent programs or snippets and separate them from the rest of the text with a single blank line before and after the code.

Use a monospace font type, such as Courier, except for pseudocode examples where a relative font type is recommended.

Background material

With commissioned theses, the commissioner may demand a thesis or parts of it to remain non-public in order to protect business or professional secrets. In this case, those parts of the work that contain such secrets are not integrated into the master’s thesis, but annexed to the thesis as background material. The background material must conform to the general guidelines on writing master’s thesis and must be left for assessment at the same time and in as many copies as the master’s thesis. The background material is not bound together with the master’s thesis but submitted separately with its own title page and titled BACKGROUND MATERIAL. However, general, non-specific information about the background material should be incorporated in the text of the master’s thesis if possible.

The minimum requirements for the actual master’s thesis are that it specifies the theoretical framework, research methods, material and its analysis, and has a list of references. It must be an independent, readable whole. Background material is evaluated together with the actual master’s thesis but is not made public. After the assessment, the background material is archived and kept in a secure place at the school. The use of background material as the main source must be agreed upon with the thesis supervisor beforehand.


In public law, use internal references only for statutes, use footnotes for all other sources.

When using footnotes, place the number before the full stop. Use a font size of 10 and a line spacing of 1 for footnotes.

Court case judgement summaries

In public law theses, separate court case and senior law enforcement judgement summaries from the actual text by indenting 1 cm from the left and using font size 11 and a line spacing of 1. Summarise them in your own words, do not quote verbatim.

List of court cases

List court cases by court in chronological order. Include the thesis page numbers where the relevant case is covered. Place the list of court cases either after the table of contents before the abstract page or after the bibliography before the appendices.

How to write Industrial Management


Students cannot make changes to their work after it has been returned for evaluation and archiving. However, if you notice parts of the work that require little repairs or refinements (the error may be a typing mistake, a naming error, an error in siding, a paragraph change, etc.) that generally do not affect the job's review but are more cosmetic, you can contact Tritonia or Education Services and ask them to add to your work the so-called errata, i.e. a change list, where you can announce the corrected parts in your work. No changes can be made to the reviewed and approved thesis file itself.

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